Apart from Routing and State Management, internationalization is the last important topic left to discuss. Internationalization aims to solve the problem of effectively displaying different interfaces to users who speak another language. A German user will be prompted to interact with a German interface whereas an English user will be given an English interface to interact with.

I do not want to dive deeply into the general topic of internationalization (or i18n for short) but rather focus on internationalization in React. I assume that you have a very rough understanding of internationalization in user interfaces and thus focus on how internationalization can be implemented in React.

I provided a very simple example on how internationalization can be achieved using the Context API in the respective chapter for the Context API already. As the complexity of our applications grows though, the complexity of issues regarding internationalization grow as well. Using the plural in different languages or meaningful placeholders suddenly become important parts of the applications we're building. In order to be prepared well to deal with such cases, it is recommended to use one of the well-known internationalization packages which have been developed to cater specifically to these use cases.

The React ecosystem boasts with a number of options to choose from. The most notable options form Lingui, Polyglot, i18next or react-intl. Facebook has developed its own framework for internationalization called FBT. In this chapter we will mainly look at i18next and its react bindings: react-i18next.

You might wonder why we are focusing on i18next; I have worked with both react-intl and react-i18next extensively in the past and have also evaluated the alternatives I mentioned above. Through these evaluations and my extensive use of react-intl and react-i18next, I have found i18next to be the best package for a number of reasons. It supports a number of different frameworks, libraries and platforms (apart from React), and offers a very big and active community. Moreover, it works seamlessly client-side as well as server-side in Node.js. Most of the bigger translation services offer i18next as one of their export formats.

i18next was also one of the first packages to implement support and even implement optimizations for React Hooks, without comprising backwards compatibility. The API has remained simple and easy to use in that process and still offers the greatest amount of flexibility. The package is complete and caters to most use cases a developer could possibly imagine making it a very solid choice for us.

Setup of i18next

In order to install this package, we enter the following lines into the terminal window:

npm install i18next react-i18next

Or if you are using yarn:

yarn add i18next react-i18next

We install i18next, the internationalization framework, as well as react-i18next, the associated React bindings. These offer a number of components and functions which will simplify the work with i18next in React. Similar to the principle which we have already seen in the chapter on state management with redux and react-redux.

Let's start by creating two objects containing our translations. One will hold German translations while the other will hold English translations:

const de = {
  greeting: 'Hallo Welt!',
  headline: 'Heute lernen wir Internationalisierung mit React',
  messageCount: '{{count}} neue Nachricht',
  messageCount_plural: '{{count}} neue Nachrichten',

const en = {
  greeting: 'Hello world!',
  headline: 'Today we learn Internationalization with React',
  messageCount: '{{count}} new message',
  messageCount_plural: '{{count}} new messages',

To use i18next in our application, we have to import it, initialize it and pass the React plugin. Ideally, all these steps should happen somewhere in the beginning of our application meaning before our app component is given over to ReactDOM.render().

We start by importing the i18next package as well as the named export initReactI18next from the react-i18next package:

import i18next from 'i18next';
import { initReactI18next } from 'react-i18next';

Consequently, we can make use of the .use() method to pass the React plugin to i18next as well as using the .init() method to initialize i18next.

  .init({ ... });

The init() function expects a config object which should at least contain a lng property as well as a resources property. lng indicates the chosen language whilst resources will contain the actual translations. It is also useful to define a fallbackLng which can be used if one of the translations chosen is not available in the chosen language. i18next offers up to 30 different configuration options, however the three I have mentioned should be enough for the moment:

  lng: 'en',
  fallbackLng: 'en',
  resources: {
    en: {
      translation: en,
    de: {
      translation: de,

The main language of the application as well as the fallback language is initially set to English. The resources object which follows needs a little more explanation. It follows the following pattern:

[Language].[Namespace].[Translation Key] = Translation

It should be clear enough what exactly we are referring to with language. This can either be en for English, de for German or even de-AT for German with a focus on the Austrian dialect. The language property has an object which contains from one to an infinite number of namespaces.

The namespace is a central feature of i18next. It allows for splitting large translation files into different parts which can be dynamically lazy loaded. While this feature is not necessary for smaller applications, it can be a game-changer for larger and more complex applications. It will help us to contain the size of the translations and to aid the readability of the translations, for example by using a namespace for each page. Translation files for these different pages can then be cared for independently and will only be loaded if they are actually needed.

We always have to use at least one namespace in i18next. By default, it will be translation, but it can be changed in the defaultNS option in the configuration object of the .init() method. The namespace itself is also an object which contains the translations in the form of translationKey: value — or greeting: 'Hello world!' to be precise.

The value could also be an object:

  greeting: {
    morning: 'Good morning!',
    evening: 'Good evening!',

Or for short:

  'greeting.morning': 'Good morning!',
  'greeting.evening': 'Good evening!',

It is entirely up to you which form you like best.

Using translations in React components

Once i18next is set up correctly and the translations have been set up as well, we can start to translate our components. i18next offers full flexibility: we can work with a withTranslation HOC in class components or a useTranslation Hook in function components. In the rare case of having to use components inside of translations, react-i18next boasts with a so-called Trans component.

Using the withTranslation() HOC in class components

The withTranslation() function will create a HOC which we can pass to the component that is supposed to be translated. The t and i18n props will be passed to this component. To do this, we import the function as a named export from the react-i18next package:

import { withTranslation } from 'react-i18next';

Once imported, we call the function and obtain a HOC which we pass the component to that we want to access the translated values with. If we are using namespaces, we can also pass the namespace we want to use to the withTranslation() function:

// Without namespaces (using the default value):
const TranslatedComponent = withTranslation()(TranslatedComponent);

// Using a single namespace:
const TranslatedComponent = withTranslation('namespace')(Component);

// Using multiple namespaces:
const TranslatedComponent = withTranslation(['namespace1', 'namespace2'])(

For myself, it has proven useful to extract components into their own files and wrap them with the withTranslation() HOC when they are exported:

// Greeting.js
class Greeting extends React.Component {
  render() {
    const { t } = this.props;
    return <h1>{t('greeting')}</h1>;

export default withTranslation()(Greeting);

We can then immediately import the translated component:

import Greeting from './Greeting.js';

Not only have we imported the actual component, but we have also gained access to the extended props t, i18n and tReady via i18next.

The t function forms the central function for everything related to translations. It is passed a translation key and will return the translated value to us, based on the chosen language.

// -> <h1>Hello world!</h1>

If plurals or placeholders are used in the translations, they can be defined in the second parameter:

<p>{t('messageCount', { count: 3 })}</p>
// -> <p>3 new messages</p>

The i18n prop contains the initialized i18next instance. It offers a number of properties and methods that can be relevant for our translations. The most notable are:

  • i18n.language to read the currently selected language

  • i18n.changeLanguage() to switch the currently selected language

In order to switch the language from en to de, we can call i18n.changeLanguage('de').

Using the useTranslation() Hook in function components

The use of the withTranslation() HOC is not constrained to class components but can also be used in function components. However, the use of the useTranslation() Hook often simplifies the component and makes it much more readable. The Hook can be imported similarly to the HOC:

import { useTranslation } from 'react-i18next';

This Hook allows us to extract the t and i18n properties by using destructuring assignment from ES2015+.

const Greeting = () => {
  const { t, i18n } = useTranslation();
  return (
      <button onClick={() => i18n.changeLanguage('de')}>de</button>
      <button onClick={() => i18n.changeLanguage('en')}>en</button>

As was already the case in the withTranslation() HOC, t refers to the function which allows us to display translations based on their translation key. i18n refers to the respective i18next instance. The useTranslation() Hook offers the same set of functionality as the withTranslation() HOC, however it is much more explicit and thus more readable. In order to use different namespaces, we can pass a string or an array of strings containing the namespaces to the Hook:

const { t } = useTranslation('namespace');
const { t } = useTranslation(['namespace1', 'namespace2']);

If no namespace has been provided, the default settings will be used.

Complex translations using the Trans component

In a few select cases, it might be necessary to use a React component in the translations. For example, one might want to use the Link component from React Router to link to a different URL within a translation. The t() function does not support this out of the box. The solution to this problem comes in the form of the Trans component from react-18next. It is not always easy to understand how it should be used but it can be powerful tool.

Let's assume that we want to use a Link component inside of our translations. The code might resemble something like this:

    <input type="checkbox" name="terms" />
    Ich akzeptiere die <Link to="/terms">AGB</Link>

Using the Link component in such a translation would not work as translations are strings and would thus not be able to define that the <Link> component refers to the Link component from the React Router package.

The Trans component offers the solution to our problem. Translations using this component can include numbered placeholders. These placeholders will later be replaced with components which will appear in the same place as they are used as in the Trans component.

Let's look at the above example using the Trans component:

// Translations:
const de = {
  terms: 'Ich akzeptiere die <1>AGB</1>.',

const en = {
  terms: 'I accept the <1>Terms and Conditions</1>.',

// JSX:
    <input type="checkbox" />
    <Trans i18nKey="terms">
      I accept the <Link to="/terms">Terms and Conditions</Link>.

Our text is wrapped by a Trans element. The text itself is only a placeholder that is used if the i18nKey prop does not contain a value which corresponds to a translation. Let's look at the numbering now. Where the text is placed and which text in particular is decided by the index value of the child element, similarly to React.createElement().

Using the above example, we have the following counting result:

0: I accept the
1: <Link to="/terms">Terms and Conditions</Link>
2: .

The <1>Terms and Conditions</1> will be replaced by the <Link> element as it corresponds to the index value of 1 in the array of children.

In complex structures where we might even deal with a number of links, this procedure can become a little bit cumbersome. Luckily, react-i18next offers the ability to automatically generate placeholders. These can be set as an option when i18next is initialized.

The first option to change is saveMissing which should now be set to true. Additionally, a missingKeyHandler function should be set. In the following example, a simple console.log() is used to log missing translations to the browser console:

  saveMissing: true,
  missingKeyHandler: (language, namespace, key, fallbackValue) => {
    console.log('Missing translation:', fallbackValue);
  // other options

If an i18nKey not currently in existence is used, the fallback value, meaning the value in the Trans element, will be written to the console instead:

Missing translation: I accept the <1>Terms and Conditions</1>.

We can now set up a translation for this case. React Router's Link has already been replaced by the corresponding placeholder (1) in the output.

As a second option, we could also replace the missingKeyHandler function with a debug option set to true.

  debug: true,
  // other options

We now get detailed debugging information, including a hint concerning our missing translations. The output would resemble the following:

i18next::translator: missingKey de translation terms I accept the <1>Terms and Conditions</1>.

The output generated by the debug option is a little more extensive than the one provided by the missingKeyHandler variant. However, it is possible to set this option by only setting its value to true.

By the way: You can still use the t() function as you are used to if you find yourself in a <Trans> element. This means, the following example is completely valid:

<Trans i18nKey="terms">
  I accept the{' '}
  <Link to="/terms" title={t('termsTitle')}>
    Terms and Conditions


Using the examples provided in this chapter, it is relatively simple to provide internationalization in our applications. For my personal and professional use, i18next has proven to be a universal and complete tool to build international applications. Integrating with different libraries and frameworks has been a breeze. It offers all sorts of functionality that should be supported by a i18n framework and is easy to understand and learn with only a small set of functions: i18n.changeLanguage(), t(), <Trans>.

Once set up correctly (I would advise you to check out the complete options of i18next), internationalization in React applications is easy to achieve without having to deal with a great deal of effort. One could even integrate with online services such as or (to name a few) which help to create and manage translations or even outsource them automatically.

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